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تاريخ التسجيل : 09/11/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: بحث عن الطاقه   الإثنين نوفمبر 09, 2009 11:24 am

Energy is what gives us the light and provide warmth and brings us from one place to another, which allows us to extract from the earth and our food preparation, as well as which are set by the water between supported and run wheel machines that serve us.

The man knew how to control water energy, wind, and strides in the field of energy, started when Al-steam thus creating a means of exploiting energy resulted in a significant number of achievements in the industry, and discovered the vast resources of oil.

Where we find energy in its various forms, whether coal or gas or oil or electricity ........ etc..

After the oil has become a major source of energy in this time, but we find that the sources of this energy can be depleted, despite the existence of large reserves.

And therefore must search for new sources of energy.

It might, therefore, scientists began looking for alternatives to fossil fuels to renewable energy was named distinguished from fossil fuels that it does not dry up, compared with oil, which is expected to run dry during the next century.

The exploitation of nuclear energy in electricity generation is fraught with environmental hazards in addition to the sources of uranium in the world are limited, but sufficient for a long time.

And the exploitation of renewable energy, including solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, tidal energy and hydrogen energy.

May meet some of mankind's energy needs for a long period of time, although the contribution of these species in the power of the total energy consumed in the world is still limited because these types of renewable energy need to be further technical development to improve the economic costs and is therefore expected to contribute to renewable energy effectively in the rationalization of electricity as well as in movement.

We have in this search for energy sources, types and how to take advantage of renewable energy and ways to search for those non-depletable energy.



First:

The definition of energy
The three stages of human thought significant in his conception of power, namely:

Phase I:

The concept of energy coupled with spiritual energy as it is in the concept of soul and spirit.

Phase II:

A person sees that some solids can be created on the formation of the movement of life.

Phase III:

Began after Einstein and his students, energy is not for us a special material, but is a feature for all static or live material make them able to be transformed and changed situations and to generate new physical, chemical, and affect other materials in this process.

At one point Einstein, who disappeared the border between the solid matter and life, and left the area for a large number of cases vague.

If energy is not an abstract entity known only through transformations.

Known as the energy is a physical quantity appears in the form of heat or in the form of mechanical movement, or as energy strayed link in the atom-proton and neutron.

Can be calculated as well as the energy resulting from the conversion of mass into energy according to Einstein relative relationship as follows:

Energy = mass × speed box


Where E is energy.

And m the mass of which can be converted into energy.

And c the speed of light equal.

Measured in units of energy in multiple international units measured in SI Paljol, where that energy does not develop and die, but turn to another form, either wholly or in part, in other words, if it changes the internal energy of an isolated group, the total internal energy remains constant, when operating an electric device such as pump Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy in addition to thermal energy which is a small part of those working on heat pump.

Types of energy:

Energy are classified into several types, namely:

1 - chemical energy.

2 - mechanical energy.

3 - heat energy.

4 - Solar Power.

5 - nuclear power.

6 - electric energy.

7 - light energy.



It is noted that these forms of energy requires all traffic, Heat is an agitation of molecules and chemical reactions require a union or disintegration of atoms and electrons that bind them, that is, the movement, as well as nuclear energy is the reorganization of the nuclei that enter the nucleus of an atom or out of, and therefore energy is transferred and carry a movement or collisions give the movement a permanent basis, and everything in the universe is a movement.

Vnor the sun turns into heat after he had stored inside materials in chemical, It is worth mentioning that all of the energy used by even today was the result of this transformation.

Nuclear power is itself divided into two different forms, namely:

Fission and fusion, and a shift of nuclear fission - nuclear, and fusion represents the fusion Pyrolysis - nuclear program.

It has become obvious that the current population growth rate on the ground will not be able to maintain a constant level and thus lead to increased energy, demonstrating the need here to search for alternative sources of non-renewable sources of energy.



(1) chemical energy:

This type of energy available in nature, and most existing fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas as well as wood, chemical energy is the energy that link the atoms of the single-molecule together in chemical compounds or components in the core elements within the fission reactions and nuclear fusion.

The process of converting chemical energy into heat energy by creating a full interaction between the chemical compound and the oxygen to the burning process and is produced from the heat. Since each molecule in a compound has a stockpile of thermal energy content is called a set of energy voltage resulting from the forces of attraction and kinetic energy of the transitional movement of the molecules.

All the hydrocarbons is accompanied by their interaction with the thermal emission of oxygen which serve as fuel.



(2) mechanical energy:

The energy resulting from the movement of objects from one place to another where they are able as a result of this movement served to make this transition is accompanied by a difference in potential energy Potential Energy, and the kinetic energy Kinetic Energy, and Natural examples for this type of energy is:

The movement of wind, and the phenomenon of the tides, can arise mechanical energy transfer type of energy to another, the electric fan may be used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.

And the unity of measurement of mechanical energy is the joule. There is another type of mechanical energy are:

Acoustic energy occurs when the sound vibration frequency of a particular sound source, and move energy from material adjacent to the center periodically until it reaches the listener's ear, the sound does not move in a vacuum but needs to move to a medium wave mechanics.

The sound waves spread in the form of mechanical impact in the middle, which spreads the resulting periodic perturbation is generated according to the power of audio.

Voice and energy have many uses can be used in the military sphere to make a noise in the infrastructure, and human being trying to use acoustic energy for a military attack.

As well as using acoustic energy in the medical field.



(3) thermal energy:

Is the thermal energy of the underlying imagery of energy that can be converted to all forms of energy, and thermal energy is a kinetic energy possessed by molecules and atoms of the article.

When you run different machines using hydrocarbon fuels to be the first step is to burn fuel, and access to thermal power turned out to mechanical energy or to any type of energy.

There are no thermal energy directly in nature only in geothermal sources, it is known that the molecule has a mass and speed, and then have a kinetic energy and energy development and these CHP know the total energy of Interior to him.

As well as the use of thermal energy from the sun is done by converting the radiation into heat energy.

And thermal energy has the capacity and the penetration force during the physical community is divided into three types, namely:

(A) a transparent medium heat: the center, which allows entry into force of thermal radiation.

(B) Central half-transparent: the center, which allows entry into force of some thermal radiation used this phenomenon in the construction of the greenhouse used to grow some crops that are made of glass, which allows entry into force of some of these thermal radiation.

(C) central dark heat: a center which does not penetrate but absorbs the thermal radiation, mostly from hot objects surrounding it. And high temperature, leading to an increase in internal energy, which in turn transformed into heat energy and become a source of emission of thermal radiation.



(4) Solar Energy:

Solar energy is the energy source is inexhaustible, but up to us with suspicion as a scatter of radiation or reflection by more than 77%, and thus can only recover a small fraction of them.

And solar power and clean energy is not caused by use of gas or products harmful to the environment as is the case in traditional fuels.



(5) of nuclear power:

Is the energy that link the components of the kernel (ie, protons or neutrons), which produces a result of breaking these bonds and lead to the production of heat energy is very large and, according to Einstein relationship is also provided.





(6) electrical energy:

There is no natural source of electricity, and the reason for this is that all materials are electrically neutral, and electric power does not arise only by transforming the type of energy to electric energy. For example, conversion of mechanical energy to electric energy as in the electric generator.

There are also other types of electrical power conversion of nuclear energy to electric energy, or the use of solar energy through photovoltaic cells, or convert the chemical energy as the batteries.



(7) light energy:

Light energy is converted to other types of energy, according to the need to be, such as electrical energy in photovoltaic cells, or thermal energy in the processes of global warming as it is in heating water.

The plant uses light energy directly to the structural representation of the production of organic compounds stored chemical energy.

And light energy is an electromagnetic waves, each containing bundles of photons is given by the following:



Where is the energy.

And Planck's constant and is equal to

And frequency of wave propagation associated with the movement of the photon.

Different electromagnetic waves in the physical properties of different wavelengths, for example, we find that waves with wavelength, which ranges from several kilometers to several centimeters used in electronic circuits, and transmission stations and television reception, while running the visible spectrum of the human eye, wavelengths ranging from to.

Characterized by X-ray x-ray and gamma-ray frequency is too high and thus high-energy have the ability to drill through the physical community.



X-ray: It is a non-visible rays of wavelength is very short, and is used in the medical field as well as in the study of crystals to determine their characteristics.



Gamma rays: a ray is not affected by electrical or magnetic fields and have the ability to access one of the rays are dangerous.
The division of energy resources

Through the definition of energy, we find that the sources of energy can be divided into two main sources:



1 - non-renewable sources. 2 - renewable sources

First:

Non-renewable sources of energy:

It is a renewable resources that it will end any time over a given heavy use, is available in limited quantities in nature and include non-renewable fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal all the species that formed over the years in the ground.

They are important because they store chemical energy is easy to release heat as energy during the combustion process.

These include nuclear energy sources that are used in the process of generating electricity by using heat generated from nuclear fission in nuclear reactors.

As well as we find that the sources of these non-renewable energy next to it, they pollute the environment.



Second:

Renewable energy sources:

It is a natural sources of permanent and non-depletable and available in nature, whether limited or unlimited, but constantly renewed, which is clean does not result in environmental pollution and use of the most important sources of solar energy, which is in essence is the main power sources of energy as well as wind and tidal power and islands, waves and geothermal energy and hydroelectric power and energy of photosynthesis and water power of the seas and oceans.

And also note that the sources of water and tidal energy and wind energy is a natural sources of mechanical energy.

We will talk about these sources in detail



Non-renewable sources

First:

Fossil fuel:

It includes oil and natural gas, coal, known sources of non-renewable because it impoverished.

And fossil fuel is an organic compounds resulting from photosynthesis, where the organic material of plants and animals did not decompose the full analysis, but buried under layers of sandy soil and clay and limestone, resulting in the oil and natural gas, coal and fossil fuel energy is the chemical energy inherent in the oil and natural gas and coal reserves in the ground and this energy is originally from solar energy which the plant by a process of photosynthesis millions of years ago.

The coal was of the most important natural sources of energy during the last century and still used until this day, and now contributes about 28% of the energy of global consumption.

With an estimated coal in the ground within several hundreds of billions of tons.



(A) coal:

One of the most important sources of fossil energy in terms of reserves, Coal keeps the stone in the ground consists of over millions of years because of the decomposition plant sources because of the biological processes in places with extreme pressure and temperature, and isolated from the air.

The oil is the biggest rival to coal, and the reasons for low use of coal as an energy source is that the sources are concentrated in a small number of countries.

The use of coal and fuel directly require funds for expensive generating stations. One of the reasons not to use coal on a large scale is its bad effect on environment and human beings as it is a major source of air pollution and caused health problems.

And surface mining of coal leaves behind a rugged territory of which leads to a distortion of the soil and not suitable for cultivation and the burning of coal could lead to accumulation of carbon dioxide which leads to high air temperature is considered one of the major problems facing the world's population and because of what is known as Balaanbas warming.

The following table shows:

Coal reserves in the world

Countries
1986

The world's total
1017.6 (t)

North America
70.6 (t)

South America
7.0 (t)

Western Europe
95.4 (t)

Africa
65.4 (t)

Asia, Australia
578.7 (t)






Source: Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries.





















And Arab countries to contain small amounts compared to the global proven reserves of coal and comes in ranked last among the sources of energy used in Arab countries, these countries are Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and the most important discoveries in this basin countries are:



Basin Jaradah:

This basin is located in the north-east of Morocco, 60 kilometers and the city of Jeddah and the estimated reserves of about 38,5 million tons.



Basin eyes Moses:

It is located 14 kilometers southwest of the city of Suez in Egypt and the estimated reserves of about 40 million tons.

Basin Cave:

And is located north of Sinai, about 90 kilometers southwest of Al-Arish and estimated reserves of about 35,5 million tons.

Basin heresy and revolution:

This basin is located in the western part of East Sinai and estimated reserves of about 15 million tons.

The following table shows:

Coal reserves in the Arab countries in tons


Sinks
Proven reserves recoverable
Additional reserve
Total

Locusts in Morocco
38.5
140
178.5

Leave in Egypt
35
31
66.5

The eyes of Moses in Egypt
--
40
40

Innovation and the revolution in Egypt
--
60
60

Bashar Guenadsh in Algeria
15
--
15

Mount Mizarev in Algeria
--
164
164




(B) Oil:

Oil is the most important sources of energy and most spread, and there are two theories show how the oil in the ground, namely:



Theory Membership:

A theory assumes that the oil may be from the organic material is a material composed of hydrogen and carbon, were formed from plants and animals that lived millions of years ago, whether on land or sea, when she died of these microorganisms were deposited at the bottom of ancient seas that once covered vast areas from the occupied land and degraded over the years, those objects and that was the result of heat and pressure in the depths of the earth to consist of crude oil and was one of the contributing factors are the types of bacteria and radioactive materials.



The other theory is the theory of non-organic:

Are assumed to have been the Union between the two elements hydrogen and carbon under pressure and temperature high in the depths of the earth.

Which led to the formation of oil and natural gas, no oil in the many gaps of sedimentary rock is composed of oil from grains of different ratios of several components (carbon - hydrogen - oxygen - nitrogen - sulfur).

Research has demonstrated the theory that took place in different regions around the world to be oil in the earth's crust is closely related to sedimentary rocks that found more than 99.9% of the accumulation of oil.

Oil is a thick black liquid flammable and composed of a mixture of organic compounds, which consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen components, known as hydrocarbons and the proportion of hydrocarbons in some types of oil for nearly 50% of the total composition and may reach 98%.

Today's oil and contributes about 39% of global energy consumption and the Middle East region contains the richest oil reserves in the world.

And Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world with the highest proportion of oil reserves in its territory. Projections indicate that world oil production will increase in coming years, in the case of the discovery of new oil reservoirs.

As well as developing ways to drill wells where it is usually to extract about 40% of oil and the greater part remain within the ground and because it is hard to extract.

One of the main causes of the spread of oil is easy to transport and transform it into derivatives vary in their characteristics, as well as the most important causes of the spread of oil is the low price and its availability in many countries that do not consume very little of it. We find that the oil wealth of the limited natural and depleted, we find that it explains the absurdity of the advanced industrial countries to increase imports from countries which were not only consume very little of it due to limited their industrial development.



Crude oil production from OPEC:

OPEC is a group of countries producing and exporting oil and is designed to coordinate and regulate the oil and includes eleven countries, namely:

Saudi Arabia - Kuwait - Iraq - Algeria - Iran - Libya - Indonesia - Nigeria - Qatar - United Arab Emirates - Venezuela.

The OPEC production of about 8,27 million barrels per day within 40% of global supplies.





Crude oil production of OAPEC:

Is the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), Arab organization aiming to promote cooperation between Member States in the areas of hydrocarbons and find ways to preserve the legitimate interests of its members in the oil industry and the provision of efforts to secure the delivery of oil to consumer markets as well as providing an environment conducive to petroleum investments and includes most of the Organization of Arab States producing oil, and at the level of Arab countries, projections indicate that total energy consumption in the Arab world will continue to increase, leading to an increase in the sectors of transport, electricity and industry.

Despite the vast progress in research on the possibility of reducing the cost of energy from the competition for oil but the oil will remain the main source of energy without a competitor in certain uses and because of that:

1 - is the main source of oil without a competitor in certain uses, such as transportation, transport, and as a feedstock for the production of mineral oils, candles and others.

2 - its importance in the petrochemical and chemical industries.

3 - enters as a raw material in the plastics industry, plastics, synthetic fibers and dyes.

4 - The oil from the cleanest sources of energy compared with coal and nuclear fuel.

5 - Ease of transportation and storage.

6 - The importance of oil for most modern industries.

All these reasons led to increased demand for oil has given the oil of great importance.



(C) natural gas:

Gas is a fossil of the most important sources of energy because it contains calories and much higher than the coal it was considered that its fuel is relatively clean. The gas is found in nature in the ground alone or mixed with oil and natural gas is composed of a mixture of gaseous compounds such as:

Methane and ethane, propane and butane, as well as treatments are necessary for the preparation and clean fuel far less than needed by the preparation of coal or oil, all that needs to be done is to remove impurities such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide. And natural gas enters the fuel in industries with energy-intensive industries such as cement and electricity production industry and iron and steel and aluminum and is also an important source for the manufacture of some fertilizers and petrochemical products and basic chemicals.

Due to the efficiency of the economies of the use of natural gas in power plants and the factors associated with preservation of the environment from pollution is one of the main reasons which led it to become faster and natural gas fossil fuel in terms of the consumption growth rate at the global level.

The total gas reserves in 1994 about 141 trillion cubic feet. In view of the production of oil, we note that accompanied the production of natural gas, has been the transfer of dry natural gas is by pipeline, it has become difficult to move across the ocean carriers have been developed for the liquefied natural gas the early sixties, bringing liquefied dry gas marketing around the world is possible.



Natural gas in the Arab areas:

I have seen natural gas reserves in the Arab countries a steady increase over recent years has increased its proven reserves of about 9,8 trillion cubic meters in 1970 to about 5, 29 trillion cubic meters at the end of 1993, more than 20% of global reserves .

The distribution of associated gas reserves of oil and free gas has averaged gas facilities in recent years between 32 and 35% reached in 1992 about 31,7%, while the percentage of free gas, about 68.3% and free gas reserves are concentrated mainly in Qatar and the Arab Emirates Nations and Algeria.

Has increased the volume of gas marketer in the Arab States of about 9 billion cubic meters in 1970 to about 165 billion cubic meters in 1992 to become the forgotten to the total gas produced 54% share was about 34% of Algeria, Saudi Arabia, about 21%, United Arab Emirates about 17,5% and has increased the global production of natural gas to most of the world.



Second:

Nuclear energy: Energy Corn: corn story began experience when he was William Crookes looks at the behavior of electricity in the air and on the low-pressure apparatus was composed of a glass vacuum tube from the air going through a Slcan connected by high tension.

Electricity began to move inside the tube was discovered cathode rays, composed of electrons. And had to be then have to wait for the detection of radiation by Becquerel of France.

The material in this universe is composed of a group of chemical elements for each physical and chemical properties of distinct as each element is composed of units of micro-called atoms.

For the atom spherical shape and varies the radius of the atom from one element to another.

There is a center of the atom nucleus is smaller than the size of corn by about ten thousand times, and contains a kernel on the elementary particles are:

Proton: it is a positive charge value and the mass of 1.007277 amu.

Neutron: a neutral charge and a mass of 1.008665 amu.

The bulk of corn is a vacuum, and there is a formidable force between nucleons constituting the nucleus and prevent them from stepping out of the nucleus despite the presence of antagonism between the protons and known as the nuclear binding force with the force and the advantage of being much larger than all the forces known as the force of gravity or the force of the electrical very limited extent. As it exists only inside the nucleus and zero outside.

Containing nuclei of each component on the same number of protons but they may contain different numbers of neutrons and is said in this case that of a single element several isotopes.

Since the chemical properties of the element depends on the atomic number Vtkon chemical properties of isotopes of each component fixed.

It also found that natural radioactivity is not confined to the nuclei of uranium but there are many nuclei, including especially the heavy nuclei are divided in terms of radioactivity into two types:

1 - nuclei of stable:

It is a nuclei that do not emit any radiation naturally.



2 - unstable nuclei:

The nuclei that have radioactivity naturally.

Featuring all nuclei with atomic number and high radioactivity due to the increasing number of protons in the nucleus on the number of neutrons, which increases the power of inconsistency between the protons of similar shipments, leading to the disintegration of the nucleus through the emission of radiation.

The radioactivity of heavy nuclei interactions in bringing about the importance of fission and nuclear fusion and then can be regarded as nuclear fuel.



Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion:

There are two ways to release energy maize which is the way of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion and the way these methods rely primarily on the principle that the nuclei of atoms more stable medium-sized nuclei of very large or very small nuclei that is splitting the nucleus of an atom of uranium 237 can be split into several nuclei of medium-sized propensity a flood of neutrons and release a high amount of energy is called nuclear fission.

But when the nuclei merge some elements such as deuterium and tritium atoms to be the largest and launches high-energy of this interaction is called the nuclear integration.



Nuclear reactors:

The process of fission of the nucleus of a special device known as the nuclear reactor and the main task of the reactor is to control the fission process and release of energy resulting in a gradual so that it can take advantage of that energy for peaceful purposes and to avoid errors.

There are two types of thermal reactors and fast reactors and the difference between the two types is that I give the thermal energy can be used to generate steam and in some industrial purposes and to generate electricity.

The second type of reactor is able to provide the amount of radiation that can be used in the manufacture of some radioactive isotopes used to treat certain diseases and some practical applications as well as the production of some other types of nuclear fuel.



Use of nuclear energy:

Nuclear power accounts for a small amount used today than the amount of energy used in the world and has contributed a higher proportion of nuclear energy in the electric power sector, amounting to 16% in 1986 and is expected to reach this percentage to 35% in 2000.

Nuclear reactors and other benefits than electricity generation reactors have been used in the conduct of ships and submarines were used in the preparation of some radioactive isotopes that do not exist in nature and these isotopes used in medicine for the treatment of some diseases.



Battery and the principle of nuclear flash:

It is a nuclear reactor, called the oven because the end of it and the interaction that takes place, is the production of heat for use in the production of electricity.

The ignition of nuclear energy based on the interaction of practice is a fundamental one fission of uranium atoms, which contains the nucleus (235) partial or nuclei.

When a uranium nucleus Bniotron collide, split into two parts have the same weight and this division is not subject to the law, but prior to the laws of probability and chance which makes the intended objects resulting from the fission differ between time and again, but it is limited in the whole mid-table classified elements known.

If we calculate the total weight of atoms and neutrons from awardees, we will find a number slightly reduced the weight of the uranium atom (235), and the weight lost is equal to the amount of energy resulting from fission and according to the Einstein equation and can be attributed to gamma rays or energy resulting from the accelerated fission fragments.

However, these fragments or waste itself is unstable ie, they give different radiation and thus degrade the molecules of different amounts of energy so as to arrive finally to the development of a stable and constant during the period of time for different types.

Turning now to the amount of energy liberated as it is a very huge amount as a single atom of uranium (235) able to give the energy equivalent to (200) MeV ie one gram of which gives the equivalent of (200000) kilowatt - hour.

And nuclear fission as we have said is usually accompanied by giving a certain number of neutrons at a rate (2.5) neutrons per fission or so where the circumstances are right that the creation of new interactions usually ends any ongoing nuclear interaction sequence.

However, the conditions that create a kind of interactions the ability to give large amounts of energy with the potential to achieve and requires little technical preparation thoughtful and complex.

Nuclear programs and types of reactors:

We said that the production of heat inside the reactor is determined by the normal fission of uranium atoms by colliding neutrons that should reduce speed in order to increase the likelihood of fission itself, that is the role of brakes.

The temperature should be discharged to the outside of the Department of a steam engine and electricity production.

This is the role of the coolant and the heat transfer fluid.

So kit is composed of the brake, and the heat transfer fluid, and a particular type of fuel is a particular method or model to give a certain energy from nuclear power and can imagine the countless number of these models.

But the force today is a specified number of them. They are divided among market high-power reactors, as follows:



1 - Group pressurized water reactor (Pressurized water Reactor):

It is used by enriched uranium (2 to 4%) compared to (0.7%) in natural uranium, these reactors are cooled and water inhibit the neutrons and the natural reservation of water under certain pressure to maintain the liquidity of high degrees of heat from the reactor during the exit.

Temperature and then transferred to the toilet again as soon not go through the situation of boiling and run on the engines. This type is widespread throughout much of the world.



2 - precious water reactor Group (Boiling water Reactor; BWR):

Which is in itself a competitor of the first or the only differs from toilets simply because they are not compressed and therefore contribute to a boil and to drive the turbine directly.



3 - type of reactors (CANDU).



4 - which operates the reactor's graphite and Gas:

A natural uranium reactor, and the brake is the graphite and the coolant is carbon dioxide.



5 - reactor with heat <<High Temp. Reactor>>. H.T.R:

It uses a combination of enriched uranium and thorium. The brake of the graphite and the coolant is helium.

This type can generate a high temperature and thus allows for better returns in the production of electricity.



6 - fast neutron reactor Group:

Sodium coolant is liquid and there is no brake here

Energy or nuclear fusion (nuclear fusion)
Another source of energy that go to the attention of developed countries is the thermal insulation is the exact source of energy for the twenty years since the station hopes of all at the same time the problems were caused by questionable of all.

Scientists have established a large number of machines with a view to harnessing fusion reactions warming.

Rights, where he hopes to be able to feed electrical networks reactors on the principle of thermal insulation.

In order to combine protons or nuclei to each other should provide conditions in pressure and temperature are the same within the stars that are summarized by pressing the equivalent of millions of times the amount of air pressure and temperature equal to hundreds of millions of degrees has already been achieved in the laboratory verification one condition.

Nuclear power currently in use for peaceful purposes is generated through the interaction of fission fusion reactions but still uses to generate energy for peaceful purposes subject of research and development and the reason for the existence of some technical difficulties in finding suitable materials for the construction of reactors in which the fusion reaction to withstand heat huge to be provided to make a fusion activity, estimated at millions of degrees Celsius.

Has been accompanied by the production of nuclear energy, a dramatic expansion in applications of nuclear techniques in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, industry and this in itself is the result of expansion in the exploitation of nuclear energy, digestive testing, analysis and processing applied nuclear hardly devoid of any hospital advanced and sterilization of needles and medical devices are now widely and by exposing them to packs of gamma rays to the extermination of germs and microbes.

However, many nuclear applications are now being used to combat insects and agricultural pests and improve the quality of agricultural crops, and the measurement of soil and moisture in the areas of groundwater sources and other uses that can not be accounted for.

And the expansion of nuclear energy production does not mean they are safe means there are many factors that limit the dissemination and proliferation dangers of radiation on the environment and human Disabilities in mind It begins in the mining extraction and mining of nuclear fuel passing out nuclear reactors which is not without exposure of personnel to radiation doses and ending the problems of waste disposal and radioactive waste is becoming an increasingly complicated with the expansion of nuclear energy, which reached to about 5% of the amount of energy consumed in 1980.

Is then expected to reach about 19% in 2000.



Renewable energy sources

There are many types of non-renewable resources depleted, we live in an era where most of the energy comes from coal mines and oil wells and other energy that has been talked about before, this fuel will be consumed very quickly where it can be drained with all the reserve within a period not exceeding one century of time.

So it must be sought from natural sources, ie, non-renewable depletable environmental pollution do not occur, and these sources as follows:



1 - Solar Energy:

The sun is the source of energy for life on Earth, a small star in our galaxy and produces the sun's energy fusion result of the interaction at the Federation of hydrogen atoms to form helium.

And the ability of radiation emitted by the sun and an estimated up to the ground around them.

Turns solar radiation in the space to the Earth's atmosphere and through the Earth's surface, affects the thickness of the atmosphere and its components on the radiation affecting the region on the surface of the land and be lower than if the solution space wiped out the atmosphere, because atmospheric scattering reflects the vacuum of outer part incident solar radiation.

Known as the solar constant flow of solar radiation in a vacuum, about equal to the average distance between Earth and the sun throughout the year, equal to the distance of astronomical units () and the approximate value of the solar constant is equal to the average value of solar radiation outside the Earth's atmosphere.

And change the distance between the sun and the earth, because the movement of the earth around the sun in the form of an ellipse, not a circle, and thus changes the value of the flow of radiation out of the atmosphere throughout the year, a decrease or increase the value of solar constant change in value of solar radiation outside the atmosphere throughout the year, and its ratio to the average value represented Balthabt solar. It is clear that the flow of solar radiation outside the atmosphere changed in the range of the average value almost throughout the year.

He spoke the highest value for the flow of radiation in the month of January when the sun is closest to the Earth's surface, while the lowest value in the month of June, when the sun is at the farthest distance from Earth.

The sun of great importance because of the existence of life on Earth's surface and where fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal are some natural processes through the storage part of the solar energy by means of photosynthesis that is, energy originally derived from the sun's energy. Date and extends the use of solar energy into pre-history when man used the sun to warm the body and the prevention of colds, although the idea of using solar energy for heating or to move the machines were not new, as there have been some attempts to take advantage of this energy in everyday life.

I have witnessed in 1930 made significant progress in interest in solar energy, where Japan has many of the patents for ideas on solar thermal Balskhanat rooftops where the number of heaters used on the roofs of houses about a quarter million units in 1960.

The research has helped to increase interest in space solar cells have been sending the first solar cell to space in 1957 and in 1958 carried the satellite, the Gard number of solar cells, 108 cell, the radio station to provide the required energy and then rolled practical research and scientific discoveries in the field of solar energy which led to the development of a major development.

The sun's energy is the main source of energy in the planet, including distributed and converted into other energy sources of either stocks in wind and thermal energy in the ground and the power generated by the watershed, solar and other energy sources like coal, timber, including solar energy the most important sources of renewable energy over the next century, the efforts of many countries have directed various forms and provided for the funds required for product development and research for the exploitation of solar energy as one of the most important alternative energy sources for oil and gas.

Gave the largest share in research and applications to the field of solar energy conversion into electricity is known as the Photovoltaic and this source of energy is the hope of developing countries in development, with availability of energy supply has become the most important key factors for creating the infrastructure which does not require the production of electricity from solar energy to the central generation but energy is produced and used in the same region or place and this is what will provide much of the cost of transport and communications The method is based primarily on the conversion of sunlight into electrical energy, and there are many substances in nature are used in the manufacture of solar cells, which combine electrical system and a specific geometric configuration of the so-called board itself solar, which displays a certain angle of the sun's rays to produce as much electricity.

Stages of the evolution of the technology of generating electricity from the sun:

Since solar energy is one of the areas and disciplines of modern scientific terms date back interested in solar as an energy source in the early thirties thinking while focusing on finding that materials and devices capable of converting solar energy into electrical energy has been the discovery of a substance called selenium that are affected by electrical resistance once exposed light has been the discovery by accident as the basis of the research was to find a high electrical resistance material for the purpose of the extension of submarine cables in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.

And taking interest in this phenomenon develop until the beginning of the fifties when the chip has been developed for high-strength silicon have been developed and forms a specific geometric dimensions and is able to convert sunlight into electrical energy conversion efficiencies (6%), but the cost was very high, this was the first use of solar panels manufacturer of silicon in the field of communications in remote areas and used to provide the satellite electrical power, where the sun to provide electrical power satellites, where the sun shone for a period of (24) hours per day and is still in use today, but this conversion efficiencies up to (16%) The default lifetime of more than twenty years. The increased interest in solar energy as a solution appropriate to the energy crisis in the future as a result of oil and gas will not continue for long, and has been a global energy crisis during the war between the Arabs and Israel, rising oil prices a major role in the direction to the discovery of new sources of energy and attention to special when compared to the dangers resulting from the use of nuclear energy, which is currently the second source of energy after oil.

All these things led to interest in solar energy, as well as we find that solar energy is distinguished from other types of energy features, including:

1 - use of nuclear energy can sometimes lead to grave danger and that result from the use of radioactive materials that pose a threat to humans and the environment which pose a threat to the security and integrity of countries, while solar energy is clean energy does not pollute the environment and does not need large quantities of water as it needs nuclear energy through cooling required.

2 - Use of solar energy does not require complex technical needs as nuclear power, especially those associated with regulating and controlling the security minute.

3 - of the major problems facing nuclear energy, the difficulty of disposal of nuclear waste resulting from the consumption of radioactive materials, while solar energy does not leave residues or waste significant environmental pollution.

4 - difficult to provide conventional fuel to run generators in remote areas and rugged mountainous areas where solar energy an important advantage of these areas are economically, providing fuel costs, labor and machine maintenance in those areas.

5 - The use of solar energy to not rely on the industrialized countries and strengthen the political and economic independence, while nuclear energy need to be enriched uranium fuel, leading to the adoption of Third World countries to industrialized countries for uranium enrichment on an ongoing basis.



Solar radiation at Earth's surface:

Some scattered solar radiation as it passes through the atmosphere, and absorbs some of the atmosphere, which is seen to the space outside the atmosphere, and thus be of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface consists of two parts, the first in the form of radiation beam or direct radiation and the other part or diffuse radiation widespread as a result of part of the radiation scattered by the atmosphere.

Less the total flow of direct and diffuse radiation at the local site of the value of the flow of radiation outside the atmosphere to the same location.



The way in which decreasing the flow of solar radiation as it passed through Earth's atmosphere can be summarized as follows:

1 - scattering and absorption of radiation by a partial molecules of dry air minute volume called hash Riley Rayligh Scattering.

2 - partial scattering and absorption of radiation by airborne dust.

3 - partial absorption by water vapor, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

4 - reflection and absorption of Dziian cloud layers in the atmosphere.

And stop the flow rates of radiation reaching the Earth's surface on the components of the atmosphere and the height of the region from the surface of the sea and the position of the Sun for the site and the last factor determines the distance that must-proof solar radiation before reaching the site and used Meteorologists unit (air mass) gives a measure of the distance between the moving radiation travels from outside the atmosphere until it reaches the site.

The value of the air mass one true when the sun is directly above the site is located at sea level while the peak is zero if we imagine the absence of the atmosphere and thus air mass defined as the ratio of the distance-proof beam in the atmosphere until it reaches the site to the distance that the beam-proof if The sun was directly over the site and the site at the surface of the sea.

The rovers can be measured total solar radiation direct and diffuse by a device called Beranomitr and using the umbrella ring with Alberanomitr (in order to obscure the direct radiation) can measure the value of the flow of diffuse radiation, and the scenario that produces the value of the flow of direct radiation.



My Alberanomitr:

This device uses as mentioned in the measurement of the flow of radiation, whether direct or scattered.

The lock and designed by Kimball in 1932 which is a simple device in the form of hemispherical cap and the detector does not require this device to track any movement of the sun, and it must be borne Alberanomitr horizontally so it can receive radiation equally in all directions.

And the device is a thermocouple and hot links to related surface black with a high absorbency of the sun.

The links of the cold they are connected to the reflective white surface rays. That is why the detector composed of two united in the center and one white and one black so that it can generate two different temperatures can be measured by using the notion of dual warming and called this design uses a black Abley Parson to make the ring made of magnesium oxide white ring.

Alberanomitr and put in the place you want to measure the solar flux and conducting counter-mail device measures the amount of solar energy falling on Alberanomitr directly as a result of thermal driving force arising in the links as a result of double heated with solar energy.

One advantage of this device that works continuously read and recorded on tape and can thus find out how much solar energy falling during the day, month and year.



Jhazalberohlihumicr:

Alberohlihumicr used to measure solar and solar energy falling, which consists of consists of exactly identical surfaces of platinum-coated black surface at the end of each set of duplications to measure the thermal temperature.



Possible applications of solar energy:

Solar radiation contributes to the different uses depending on the type and amount of energy to be produced:

And principles used in the conversion of radiant energy to the ability of DC is as follows:

1 - photoelectric conversion.

2 - ion thermal conversion.

3 - electric thermal conversion.



1 - thermal conversion:

Focus the idea of converting the sun's energy into heat energy in the principle of dark objects absorb radiation and convert it into heat, and on this basis, the body absorbs radiation from the sun and converts it to thermal energy, with high temperature, the heat absorbed is used in many household and industrial use, for example, heating water, heating, or drying of agricultural products.

The purpose of heating water for domestic use of the most common applications of the thermal conversion, and water heating system consists of the complexes are converting the sun's energy into heat energy, and these complexes is a black sheet working to deliver heat to a liquid flow in pipes and installed adjacent to it and the hot liquid Heat the water in the pipes used in homes and using the heat exchanger.



The phenomenon of light and optics:

Light is an electromagnetic wave energy is transferred, when up how much energy to the surface of the metal as it pulled out for one electron, and there is a minimum of energy that must be secured to do so called extraction in other words, there is a limit to the value of the desired frequency for the photoelectric effect phenomenon.

When the photon energy increases the energy required to rip electron clinch the latter surplus of energy and energy take the form of kinetic energy in accordance with the prescribed formula.

Thus, the phenomenon optics are converting optical radiation to the charged particles can be picked up by an electric cord arises from a positive result, electric current, thus achieving the generator can not reap Aldaeven ability and potential to make it effective for generators, the applications of photovoltaic power is not outside the framework of the electrical currents groups: photocell, pumps, etc. .. photons.



Give half of the physics of vector solution to be important, especially to the question of direct energy conversion of light into electricity, which is to influence the optical Alfolati, which has seen hundreds of satellites and space programs that use solar batteries to the full its ability to burn.

Article half of the carrier is a body of quality Resistivity resistance ranging between resistance buffer objects and vector resistance good (minerals) When the low temperatures of electrons in the material half a tanker in the case of closely linked atoms crystalline network that establishes that Working, and therefore there is no shipments of conducting electrical contact. In this case, the object buffer if the body temperature rose or the body has gained a form of energy the electrons will try to escape from the network and thus contribute to the transfer process for electroplating.

Here, too, must be a minimum of energy to liberate electrons from the network and the minimum-called sector and prohibited the resulting arrangement of the electronic energy levels in the body steel crystal It is well known that electrons in an atom isolated distributed at different levels of energy In the crystalline objects composed of atoms distributed according to a regular network, the energy levels of these together and make up the sectors of energy.



The sector, which has a low level of energy called The private equity sector is the top-level sector is the Plug and separates the two sectors sector outlawed previously reported.

Parity sector is saturated at low temperatures in a semi tanker.

As for Gaza Plug Vicu blank and can transfer electrons from one of these sectors to the other by giving the amount of energy equal to the difference between the two sectors.

And thermal energy allowing for the possibility of this transformation, but the effectiveness of light energy have more important, so that the resistivity of some semiconductor movement whenever exposed to the flow of light as the delivery process photosynthesis. Which are used in photovoltaic cells, resistors.

In solar battery power supply arises from the escape of electrons by photons falling upon penetration of a link existing between the positive and negative PN Junction))



The photoelectric conversion:

Method is based on the principle of converting solar radiation directly into electric current using the phenomenon of the photoelectric effect is the basic picture of the phenomenon of so-called solar cells, solar cells, where they rely in their work on the phenomenon of the photoelectric effect.

The photoelectric effect and is divided into two types:

1 - external photoelectric effect.

2 - the photoelectric effect of procedure.

We find that in the case of the photoelectric effect outer free electrons are emitted from the surface of a material absorbs photons.



In the case of the photoelectric effect of procedure, it is up by editing the charge carriers within the material absorbs photons of specific energy.

The phenomenon of the photoelectric effect and is characterized by outer metal minerals and some of the vehicles to the phenomenon of non-enforcement of the photons into visible light and ultraviolet radiation into substantially and that means absorbing photons near the surface and in the event that the highest energy photons from the job function of the surface of the body absorbing the electron gets enough energy to make it liberated from the surface and this phenomenon occurs as a result of emission of electrons from some surfaces such as, metals in the fall of light energy, where it is given sufficient energy photons to electrons and lead to the phenomenon of the photoelectric emission
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